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While Alabama’s poultry industry produces 18 million broilers every week, it generates 800 tons of carcasses weekly, as well. Every broiler production facility must face the reality of dead birds. Disposal of dead birds could be a serious environmental problem that may limit future expansion of the industry in Alabama.
Disposal Methods And Environmental Concerns
Producers most commonly use burial pits for the disposal of poultry carcasses. However, when residue remains in pits after years of use or in soils with high groundwater tables, reduced surface and groundwater quality is a serious potential problem. In some states, such as Arkansas, legislation has been enacted to prohibit the use of burial pits.
Incineration is biologically the safest method of disposal. However, it is slow, expensive, and generates nuisance complaints even when highly efficient incinerators are used. Incinerators also generate particulate air pollution.
Concern over possible environmental damage and newly imposed local, state, and federal water and air quality regulations make alternative disposal methods of interest to the producer. Deadbird composting is one such alternative that the state Veterinarian’s office, state and local health departments, the Alabama Department of Environmental Management, and the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) have approved.
Poultry Carcass Composting
Testing and adoption of composting as a method for the disposal of poultry carcasses began in Alabama in the late 1980s. Since 1989, Alabama poultry farmers have constructed more than 500 freestanding carcass composters. Poultry producers have readily accepted the composting of poultry carcasses, but operating the composter requires a tractor with loader for loading, turning, and removing the compost.
Because large broiler farms–those with more than two poultry houses–use tractors and loaders in their farming operations, they have adopted poultry carcass composting. On the other hand, small broiler farms–those with only one or two broiler houses–do not have tractors or loaders and have not adopted composting. About 50 percent of the 6,000 Alabama broiler farms fall into this last category.
In other states small-scale producers have constructed mini-composters for use in the broiler house. Researchers at the University of Delaware tested simple, single-stage composters (Scarborough, et al., 1992). These small composter bins were placed within the confines of the broiler house, and carcasses, straw, caked litter, and water were added daily. In Alabama, however, most producers usually place mini-composters outside of the broiler house.
Mini-composting works well for grow outs of approximately 7 weeks. If producers are growing large birds, added capacity may be required.
Building The Mini-Composter
The simplest design for a mini-composter consists of a wooden box to hold dead poultry and other composting materials. The portable compost box developed at Auburn University is 4 feet by 4 feet and 4 feet high with removable side panels. The box is constructed from pressure-treated lumber with 1/2-inch air spaces between side boards (figure 1).
The box can handle normal bird mortality (two to four carcasses per thousand per day). An average 20,000-bird house requires four to five compost boxes to handle normal bird mortality. Small-scale composting cannot accommodate the carcasses from larger die-offs. Larger die-offs require other disposal methods.
While mini-composters were originally designed to be used inside the poultry house, in Alabama compost boxes are placed under a small structure separated from the poultry house (figure 2). Cost estimates for the structure and compost boxes do not exceed $1,500 for a two-house operation.
A number of programs are available to help poultry producers reduce the cost of building composting structures. Contact the local Conservation District office, the USDA Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS), or the SCS about cost-share funds for the construction of composters.
Operating The Composter
For successful operation, the composter must be properly loaded. First, place a 6- to 8-inch layer of manure cake (litter) in the bottom of the box. Then add an appropriate amount of straw, according to the composting formula, to aid in aeration and to provide a source of carbon (see table). After these two layers, add ingredients according to the formula, beginning with a layer of carcasses, then a layer of litter. Be sure to keep the carcasses at least 6 to 8 inches away from the sidewalls of the bin. This will eliminate fly and odor problems. The litter is readily available as caked or uncaked material from the floor of the broiler house. If the litter is dry you may need to add water to it.
Formula For Dead Poultry Composting.
Material Parts By Weight
Poultry Manure (Litter) 2 to 3
Poultry Carcass 1
Water (Add sparingly.) 0 to 1/2
For the next and all subsequent layers, begin with straw; then add carcasses and manure, in that order. As the grow-out proceeds, add successive layers of material to the box. After you add the last layer, place the final cover or cap of a double layer of manure over the top. Do not add water to this final cap (figure 3).
NOTE: The purpose of the straw is to add air voids and allow aerobic decomposition of the mixture. Many producers who use caked material have successfully composted without straw, but the individual producer must decide whether or not to use straw. You can achieve good temperatures without straw; however, proper management of the box becomes much more important.
When adding additional water for composting, keep in mind the moisture content of the litter. The moisture content of poultry litter or cake may vary from 20 to 40 percent depending on the source. In small-scale composting, adding water to achieve a 50- to 60-percent moisture content is much more important than in large-composter management.
Monitor the temperature in the compost bin with a 20-inch, probe-type thermometer. After a few days, temperatures increase rapidly because of bacterial action, rising to 130°F or greater. After 7 to 10 days, the pile reaches its high reading of 130° to 150° F, which helps stabilize the compost. Once temperatures begin to decrease, you can easily move the composted material to storage.
Land Application Of Compost
Compost is stored in a weather-protected structure until proper time for land application to meet field or forage crop needs. Nutrient content of compost will vary depending upon the amount and nutrient content of the manure, the age of the compost, and the method of storage.
The rule of thumb for nutrient content of compost is as follows:
Moisture 28.0 percent
Nitrogen 1.9 percent
P2O5 2.3 percent
K2O 1.6 percent
To be land-applied like fertilizer, compost must meet crop needs through a balanced nutrient content. Compost should be applied as close to planting as possible and should be incorporated with normal soil tillage operations.
Alternative methods for the disposal of poultry carcasses are limited, and mini-composting presents itself as a desirable environmental and economic option. Applied research conducted at Auburn University in the early 1990s demonstrated that small-scale composting puts an effective and simple composting system within the reach of virtually every poultry producer.
The mini-composter fills the need for a small, simple composter that can process complete growout mortality on small to medium-sized farms. The operation is simple, yet highly effective, and construction costs are reasonable. Mini-composters may also be useful in periods of light mortalities on larger operations.
With the expansion of both the broiler and turkey industries in North Carolina, a large supply of both types of litter have been generated and must be disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner. Both of these products offer potential as nitrogen and mineral sources for feeding cattle. Broiler litter has been used successfully as a feed source for both growing cattle and brood cows. However, very little research is available for evaluating turkey litter in feeding programs.
Materials and Methods
Six feeding trials (three with broiler litter and three with turkey litter) involving 384 growing cattle have been completed. In all of these trials, litter containing from 20 to 30% protein has been obtained from either broiler or turkey houses and deep stacked under plastic for approximately 60 days prior to feeding. The litter has then been top-dressed over corn silage and mixed with the silage at the time of feeding. In all trials, steer of heifer calves, weighing approximately 400 lb initially, were purchased approximately 60 days prior to initiating the studies. Animals were housed in a confinement feeding facility consisting of 16 pens of four animals each. In all trials, four replicate pens were used in evaluating supplemental treatments (16 animals/treatment) and animals were assigned to pens based on body weight.
Summary of Results
Three trials in which broiler litter was used to provide all the supplemental protein to corn silage based diets resulted in average daily gains of 1.97 lb/day as compared to 2.28 lb/day for similar animals supplemented with soybean meal. The improvement in gain for the soybean meal supplement for the three trials was .27, .26 and .39 lb/day. When broiler litter was used to provide 50% of the supplemental protein and either soybean meal or ring dried blood meal was used to provide the remaining 50%, performance was equal to animals fed soybean meal. These results confirm that broiler litter is a satisfactory and economical nitrogen source for growing cattle.
Three trials in which turkey litter was used to provide all the supplemental protein to corn silage based diets resulted in average gains of 1.62 lb/day as compared to 2.41 lb/day for similar animals supplemented with soybean or cottonseed meal. The improvement in gain of the soybean or cottonseed meal supplemented cattle was 1.12, .76 and .48 lb/.day for the three trials. In two of the trials, graded levels of turkey litter (0, 33.3, 67.7 or 100%) were used to supply the supplemental protein and soybean meal the remainder. In both trials, a linear depression in gain was observed as the level of turkey litter was increased in the diet although very little if any, depression was observed at the low level of turkey litter compared to animals supplemented with soybean meal. In the trials with turkey litter, serum minerals and ruminal ammonia nitrogen were examined and were in the normal range and did not appear to be the reason for the depressed gains. Based on the results of these trials, turkey litter should not be used to provide more than 33.3% of the supplemental protein for growing cattle fed corn silage diets.
Source: R. W. Harvey, J. W. Spears and M. H. Poore in http://www.cals.ncsu.edu
Kambing Kacang, kambing ini merLuas Kandang upakan kambing asli Indonesia. Dengan ciri-ciri fisik sebagai berikut: badan kecil dan pendek, kadang-kadang terdapat gelambir kecil di leher bagian atas. Baik betina maupun jantan kebanyakan bertanduk, telinga berukuran sedan, leher pendek dan tebal, punggung agak melengkung, ekor kecil dan tegak, bulu pada yang betina pendek sedangkan yang jantan panjang. Warna bulu bervariasi dari hitam, coklat, putih dan kombinasinya, temperamennya gesit, terampil dalam mencari pakan. Kambing kacang merupakan ternak potong dan penghasil daging yang baik.
Kambing Etawa, kambing ini berasal dari Jannapari – India, dimasukkan ke Indonesia pada tahun 1908 guna memperbaiki mutu kambing kacang. Kambing etawa ini mempunyai ciri-ciri fisik sebagai berikut: badang agak besar, hidung melengkung, telinga panjang menggantung, kaki dan bulu kaki panjang, warna bulu badan pada umumnya putih atau coklat muda kekuningan, dibagian leher dan kepala berwarna coklat, ambing besar dan panjang. Kambing ini merupakan kambing perah yang produksi susunya mencapai 3 – 4 liter/hari.
Kambing Peranakan Etawa, kambing ini merupakan hasil persilangan antara kambing kacang dengan kambing etawa yang telah terjadi beberapa puluh tahun lalu. Kambing ini merupakan kambing yang sudah beradaptasi dengan kondisi Indonesia, hingga sering disebut kambing lokal. Ciri-ciri fisik berada antara kambing kacang dengan kambing etawa.
Kambing Saanen, kambing ini diimpor dari Austalia pada tahun 1978 dan ditempatkan dipeternakan Tapos. Keturunannya telah banyak disebarluaskan di daerah Jawa Barat dan Jawa Tengah sebagai upaya untuk meningkatkan mutu kambing rakyat setempat. Kambing ini mempunyai ciri-ciri fisik sebagai berikut: berbulu pendek tapi rapat dibandingkan dengan kambing kacang, warna bulu putih mulus dan sedikit agak krem. Baik yang jantan maupun betina berjenggot. Merupakan kambing perah, karena ambingnya besar dan puting berbentuk kerucut. Produksi sus berkisar 2-5 liter/hari.
Kambing Gembrong, kambing ini terdapat di pantai timur Pulau Bali. Badannya lebih besar dari kambing kacang, bentuk muka sedikit cembung dan bentuk telinga kecil. Baik yang jantan maupun betina berjenggot dan bertanduk, leher pendek dan agak tipis, bulu tipis dan agak panjang. Pada yang betina panjang bulunya dapat mencapai 20 – 22 cm.
Umumnya ternak kambing di Indonesia beranak pertama kali pada umur 15 – 19 bulan. Cepat atau lambatnya masa beranak yang pertama sangat tergantung pada kualitas pakan yang diberikan, mutu bobot yang dipelihara, serta tatalaksana pemeliharaan yang baik. Untuk mendapatkan mutu bobot kambing yang baik harus berasal dari daerah sumber bibit yang telah ditetapkan atau dari perusahaan yang telah memiliki izin usaha pembibitan. Dalam pemilihan bibit ternak kambing harus memenuhi kriteria sebagai berikut:
Sehat dan bebas dari segala cacat fisik seperti cacat mata (kebutaan), tanduk patah, lumpuh, pincang, kaki dan kuku abnormal, serta tidak terdapat kelainan tulang punggung dan atau cacat fisik lainnya.
Kambing betina harus bebas dari cacat alat reproduksi, tidak menunjukkan gejala kemandulan, berumur antara 8 – 12 bulan (dewasa kelamin) dengan berat badan 12- 16 kg (dewasa tubuh). Berasal dari keturunan yang sehat dan tidak pernah terserang oleh penyakit. Mempunyai daya pertumbuhan yang lebih cepat, mampu menyesuaikan diri dengan pakan yang tersedia.
Kambing jantan tidak menderita cacat pada alat kelamin, telah berumur 9 – 12 bulan (dewasa kelamin) dengan berat badan 18 – 20 kg (dewasa tubuh), dada lebar dan dalam, badan panjang dan punggung rata serta otot tubuh kuat dan padat.
Pemeliharaan ternak kambing harus memiliki bangunan kandang yang kuat dan disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan dan tujuan pemeliharaan, serta kondisi setempat.
Kandang harus kuat, terbuat dari bahan yang ekonomis. Konstruksi kandang harus dapat menjamin ternak kambing terhindar dari kecelakaan dan kerusakan fisik. Harus memenuhi syarat kesehatan, mudah dibersihkan, dan mudah melakukan desinfeksi kandang. Mempunyai drainase yang baik terutama dalam pembuangan limbah, dapat memenuhi daya tampung, usahakan udara segar masuk ke dalam kandang secara bebas, dan dilengkapi dengan tempat makan dan minum.
Untuk mengetahui kebutuhan luas kandang, maka di bawah ini diberikan patokan luas/ekor berdasarkan jenis dan keadaan kambing tersebut: Jantan Dewasa Umur 12 bulan Luas Kandang 1.2 m2, untuk Betina Dewasa Umur 12 bulan Luas Kandang 1.0 m2, Kambing Muda Umur 7 – 12 bulan Luas Kandang 0.75 m2, Anak Kambing 7 bulan Luas Kandang 0.5 m2, sedangkan Kandang induk yang menyusui + setiap ekor anak kambing Luas Kandang 1.0 + 0.5 m2
Jarak antara kandang dan bukan kandang minimal 25 m.
Penyediaan dan pemberian pakan merupakan faktor yang paling menentukan. Pakan ternak kambing terdiri dari pakan hijauan yang berasal dari rumput-rumputan, daun-daunan dan hasil sampingan tanaman pertanian. Disamping pakan hijauan juga diberikan pakan konsentrat yang berasal dari campuran dedak padi, tepung atau butiran jagung atau bahan pakan lainnya yang ada disekitar kita.
Pemberian pakan konsentrat ini harus disesuaikan dengan tujuan pemeliharaan ternak kambing. Dalam pemberian pakan kambing, yang perlu diperhatikan kebutuhan zat-zat yang terkandung dalam pakan tersebut. Seperti: protein, energy, mineral, serat kasar dan vitamin.
Kebutuhan pakan kambing yang sedang dalam pertumbuhan dan kambing betina yang sedang bunting sebanyak 60% rumput dan daun-daunan, 40% kacang-kacangan dan konsentrat sebanyak 200-250 gr/ekor/hari.
Kambing jantan dan betina dewasa, sekaligus sebagai pemacek membutuhkan pakank sebanyak 75% rumput dan daun-daunan, 25% kacang-kacangan dan konsentrat sebanyak 200-250 gr/ekor/hari.
Induk kambing yang sedang menyusui membutuhkan pakan sebanyak 50% rumput dan daun-daunan, 50% kacang-kacangan dan konsentrat sebanyak 200-250 gr/ekor/hari.
Waktu pemberian pakan hijauan bagi kambing yang dikandangkan, sebaiknya diberikan pada pagi hari terus menerus setelah selesai pembersihan kandang dan konsentrat diberikan 2x sehari yaitu jam 10 pagi dan jam 16 sore.
Sedangkan kambing yang diperah sebaiknya pemberian pakan hijauan pakan setelah pemerahan. Kambing yang dilepaskan di padang penggembalaan dibiarkan saja merumput sampai sore dan konsentrat disediakan di lapangan.
Pemberian air minum harus tersedia setiap saat dan harus memenuhi baku mutu air yang dapat diminum oleh manusia maupun oleh ternak.
Ternak kambing paling baik dikawainkan apabila telah cukup umur (dewasa kelamin) dan telah mencapai berat badan yang cukup tinggi (dewasa tubuh).
Perkawinan yang dapat dilakukan pada saat kambing betina telah birahi, yaitu pada jam ke 18-20 pada saat birahi berlangsung, dengan lama birahi 24-45 jam. Apabila tidak terjadi kebuntingan maka kambing betina tersebut akan birahi lagi pada hari ke 17-21 setelah terjadi birahi sebelumnya.
Pengaturan perkawinan dilakukan sedemikian rupa sehingga dalam jangka waktu 2 tahun dapat melahirkan 3 kali (setiap 7 bulan).
Perbandingan antara jantan dan betina adalah 1 : 9 (setiap 1 ekor bibit kambing jantan dapat mengawini 9 ekor bibit kambing betina).
Ternak kambing termasuk yang tidak mudah diserang penyakit, asal pemeliharaannya dilakukan dengan baik. Akan tetapi karena kurangnya perhatian dalam pemeliharaan, maka sering terserang penyakit. Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut maka peternak wajib melakukan upaya pengendalian, pemberantasan dan pengobatan penyakit secara tradisional dengan menggunakan bahan yang ada di sekitar kita yang mudah didapatkan dan murah harganya.
Cacingan Penyebab dari penyakit cacingan pada ternak kambing yaitu terjadi pada saat kambing memakan rumput. Telur cacing ikut termakan. Gejala-gejalanya: – Kurus, pucat, bulu berdiri. – Nafsu makan menurun dan sering mencret. – Pada kondisi serangan yang berat terlihat cacing pita pada kotoran. Cara pengobatan: – Giling 3 lembar daun pepaya kemudian tambah 1 sendok teh garam dapur lalu campurkan dalam 1 gelas air. – Campuran ini diminumkan untuk 1 ekor kambing setiap hari. – Lakukan pemberian larutan tersebut 2 kali seminggu selama 1 bulan. Mencret Mencret pada ternak kambing akibat adanya gangguan pada saluran pencernaan (usus). Gejala-gejalanya: – Ternak kambing terlihat lemah – Tinja yang keluar berupa cairan yang berwarna kuning kehijau-hijauan atau kuning kehijau-hijauan bahkan hitam kemerah-merahan. Pengobatan: Cara I: – Berikan daun pepaya segar sebagai pakan. – Tuangkan air mendidih di atas daun teh di dalam suatu wadah. Cara ini diulangi selama 1 minggu. Cara II: – Rebus akar alang-alang secukupnya, setelah disaring air rebusan tadi ditambahkan dengan sedikit gula merah. – Berikan setengah gelas larutan untuk setiap ekor kambing sampai mencretnya hilang. Kembung Perut Penyebab kembung perut adalah kegagalan pengeluaran gas dalam perut akibat ternak kambing makan rumput atau daun-daun yang masih basah atau embun. Bisa juga keracunan. Pengobatan: – Usahakan kambing tetap berdiri kemudian buka mulutnya dengan cara meletakkan kayu diantara kedua rahangnya. – Ambilkan minyak kelapa setengah gelas dan masukkan ke dalam mulut sambil mengurut-urut bagian perut yang kembung. – Bersamaan itu masukkan pipa karet atau tangkai daun pepaya ke dalam perut melalui anus. – Tekan bagian perut perlahan-lahan agar gas dapat keluar. Kudis (Scabies) Penyakit kudis (scabies) karena infeksi parasit pada kulit ternak. Cara pengobatan: – Mandikan ternak dan gosok dengan sabun sampai bersih lalu jemur sampai kering. – Ambil oli bekas secukupnya dan campur dengan belerang 100 gr yang sudah ditumbuk halus. Campur merata dan oleskan pada permukaan kulit yang sudah dibersihkan. – Pengobatan diulang setiap 3 hari sampai sembuh. Pemasaran Ternak kambing yang akan dipasarkan harus menggunakan alat transportasi khusus. Supaya ternak tersebut tetap sehat selama dalam perjalanan bahkan sampai di tempat pemotongan. Minimal 1 bulan terakhir sebelum dipasarkan atau dipotong, penggunaan obat sudah harus dihentikan.
Forage System Development
To start evaluating an existing or potential production system, the producer should consider the goals of the beef operation and the physical limitations of the land base to be used. In many situations, soil type and topography will have a lot to do with the make up of the final forage system. Any system to be used for brood cow production needs to produce medium to high quality grazing nearly year around, while stocker systems are more flexible and may be the system of choice for producers who do not produce forage during a significant time during the year. In general, forage systems should be built around perennials, because annuals are expensive due to high seed and establishment costs.
For most cow-calf systems in the coastal plain, a balance of cool and warm season forages will be needed, and several systems of this type are described in Chapter 16 of Bulletin 305. In the Coastal plain, most systems will utilize either fall or winter calving, and this depends on if high quality grazing is available in the fall. The best mixed system will be a combination of bermudagrass/crabgrass (or other warm season perennials), fescue, and small grain either in rotation with millet, or overseeded on the warm season perennials. Spring calving is usually not successful in the coastal plain, due to the potential for extreme heat stress during the breeding season.
In the Piedmont, fall, winter or spring calving may work on a given farm, and will depend on the relative acreage of warm and cool season forages. In the Mountains, spring calving is likely the best choice of systems due to the high cost of winter feeding of fall calving cows, and the potential for both high feed cost and high calving losses as a result of severe weather conditions with winter calving cows. The mountain system may not require warm season forages (other than native warm season plants that invade pastures in late summer and fall) because cool season forages will grow well through the summer.
Most old pastures in the piedmont and mountains evolve into a mixture of cool and warm season forages, and strategic use of fertilizer application can provide high quality grazing when it is needed. Many producers think it is necessary to reestablish pastures after the main seeded variety starts to decrease in stand share, but in most situations a pasture will evolve into a plant community that can be maintained indefinitely. If reseeding is needed, overseeding perennial grasses and legumes is often a better alternative than complete destruction and reestablishment. In general from 1.5 to 2.5 acres will be needed to support one cow/calf unit.
Stocker cattle need high quality forage to perform. The systems that work best are winter grazing on rye/ryegrass pastures, grazing on stockpiled fescue (with some energy supplement provided), or summer grazing on crabgrass, switchgrass, eastern gamma grass or other high quality warm season forages. Bermudagrass doesn’t have the quality potential to be very good for stockers without grain supplementation. We have consistently had 1.75-2 lb/day summer gains on bermudagrass with 3 lb of grain as compared to 1.25-1.5 lb/day with bermudagrass alone. Most cow-calf producers should consider stockering their own calves (depending on economic conditions each year) and selling them weighing 700-800 lbs at one year of age, which adds diversity and flexibility to the system.
Once the system is laid out in terms of the acreage and production available, we can estimate the carrying capacity of the system and where the potential holes are in the feed supply. This will give you an initial idea of what a target will be for stocking. The fencing and watering system should be installed before stocking if possible as that will facilitate getting things going. When modifying an existing system, the producer will have to work around the day-to-day needs of the cattle and this complicates things. Once the permanent pastures are laid out and established, it is time to take control of the animal groups.
Use of Animal Grouping in Your Management Program
Animal grouping is the key to efficient management of animals on pasture. The various classes of animals have a range of nutritional requirements (Chapter 16, bulletin 305) with baby calves being very high, followed by light calves/stockers, developing replacement heifers and bulls, young cows, and mature cows (and bulls) who have the lowest requirements. In late fall and early winter, most cow-calf operations using winter and spring calving will have a group of weaned calves (at least the replacement heifers), a group of bred replacement heifers, dry cows, and bulls. Fall calving herds will have lactating mature cows, lactating two-year old heifers, developing yearling heifers and bulls.
In the winter and spring calving situation the weaned calves have the highest requirements, and should be in the highest quality forage available. If the quality is inadequate they may need a grain supplement with an ionophore. If not, they should be fed a free choice mineral containing an ionophore unless they are replacement heifers well ahead of schedule in terms of development. The yearling replacement heifers may be used as a follower group for the calves, or may be used as a leader group for the dry cows. Regardless, the dry cows will be used to clean up the lowest quality forage available, with a goal of having them in body condition score of 6 at calving. The replacement heifers should be gaining about 1 lb/day and should be in a body condition score of 6.5 at calving. Some people want heifers to be a little thin at calving to help reduce calving problems, but it really doesn’t help, and the calves tend to be weak at birth and the heifer is slow to breed back.
For the fall calving situation, the developing replacement heifers and lactating two-year olds have the highest requirements. They may be managed in the same group on small operations. These animals should get the highest quality grazing and/or hay available and will usually require an energy supplement such as grain or whole cottonseed. The lactating cows have moderate requirements and should be fed medium quality hay or pasture (stockpiled fescue) or lower quality hay with a supplement. There is not much use for low quality hay on a fall calving cow-calf system.
Evaluating Nutritional Status
There are two major tools that you will use day to day to evaluate when animals are ready to move to fresh grass. One is the fill that is visible in the animals stomach, and the other are their behavioral cues. A well fed animal, where the goal is gain, will appear “full” most of the time. If these animals are allowed to become “gaunt” before moving, their performance will be hurt. In general, neither weaned calves nor replacement heifers should not be allowed to get empty. Dry cows, on the other hand, will probably become a little gaunt before moving is necessary.
The other tool in determining short-term nutritional status is the animal’s behavior. A well fed, contented animal will not get excited when they see you. The animals will begin to understand that you provide them feed when they need it, so when they see you and also are declining in their nutritional plane they will let you know it. Tuning in to what the animals are telling you is important. If they are almost impossible to drive out of a paddock, they probably don’t need to be moved. Fecal consistency is useful in determining quality of the diet. Low quality results in “tall stacks”, medium quality in “cow pies”, and high quality the “grass scours”.
Body condition scoring is the tool you use in the medium to long-term to evaluate the animals’ status and whether you are cutting them too tight, or letting them waste feed. The dry cows need to clean up closer than the other groups, and they will be unhappy by the time you move them to fresh grass, but as long as you maintain their body condition that’s fine. Growing animals should be in body condition score 6 most of the time which indicates that they have adequate nutrition to grow at their genetic capability. Day to day mistakes in the amount of grass offered are inevitable and should be picked up by the short-term cues. If the mistakes are consistent, then body condition will start to suffer. Cows should be in an operating condition of 4-7 throughout the year, and the replacement heifers should never fall below a 5.
The group we haven’t talked about are the bulls. Housing the bulls is a problem, and it seems that the best option is to maintain them in a pasture of their own that supplies about 2 acres/bull and then be prepared to feed them hay as necessary. They may need some grain supplementation starting 60 days before the breeding season so that they have a body condition score of 6.0 when put with the cows.
There are some other management considerations you should be thinking about. They include the use of a good mineral supplement, perhaps the use of alternative supplements like cottonseed and soybean hulls, and the use of creep grazing and other advanced grazing techniques. These topics will be handled in detail in several of the handouts provided to you.
A high quality mineral program is very important in these more intensive forage systems. Potentially, home grown forage and mineral could be the only feeds needed. Medium and high quality forages are a good source of many important minerals, such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur, and the important vitamins A and E, but they are usually deficient in salt, and the trace minerals copper, zinc, and selenium. Traditionally producers have used trace mineralized salt (red salt), “sulfur blocks” (yellow salt), or white salt, but they are not to be recommended in any situation because they contain insufficient copper and have no selenium. The copper in these products is also from copper oxide which has low availability; copper sulfate is the supplement of choice. Copper carbonate and tri-basic copper chloride are other inorganic sources with high availability. The yellow salt does provide sulfur, but it is more likely that sulfur will be too high in our systems and it is almost never deficient. The white and yellow salt have no trace minerals at all and should never be used.
Sometimes, producers provide both salt and a complete mineral supplement, but this is not recommended because some animals may consume little of the complete supplement. Free choice supplements such as protein blocks are almost never recommended when grass tetany is a potential problem (unless they are “high-mag”), because they contain salt and will reduce the intake of the mineral supplements.
Due to high levels of potassium and marginal levels of magnesium in high quality forages, they generally predispose both lactating cows and growing calves to grass tetany. Because of this we often recommend the year-round use of a high magnesium free choice mineral supplement. Our recommendation is that these supplements be consumed at 4 oz/animal unit/day, and should contain 10-14% magnesium, .09% copper from copper sulfate (.13% copper for Simmental and other exotic breeds), .18% zinc and .0026% selenium. A lower cost (low phosphorus) high magnesium supplement can be used if phosphorus is known to be adequate. Also, molasses/magnesium blocks are available for use on farms with a high incidence of grass tetany.
Growing cattle such as stocker cattle and replacement heifers should be provided with a free-choice mineral with an ionophore (Bovatec or Rumensin). These types of supplements will pay for growing cattle on high quality diets even though they seem expensive “by the bag”. Using an ionophore mineral will pay about a $.10 return in extra gain for each $.05 invested. With high quality forages and an ionophore containing mineral, heifers can frequently be developed without grain supplementation. Bovatec should never be recommended for brood cows, while Rumensin can be used for brood cows.
New feed additives such as “chelated” trace minerals (like zinc methionine) increase the mineral cost by about the same amount as the ionophore, but are supported by very few research studies compared to the ionophores. They are recommended with great caution because many producers have been disappointed with the results, and often they are inadequate in magnesium, copper or other needed minerals.
Winter Feeding Management
Regardless of the system, there will be a time when the cattle are being fed hay, and this is a logical time to save some money. Sampling the hay on hand and analyzing it for nutritional quality will allow the producer to meet the nutritional requirements of all the groups with minimal supplement. During the winter there should be some high quality grazing and that should be allotted to the developing replacement heifers and/or the first calf heifers. The mature cows will be getting the lowest quality hay up until they calve, and then will be fed medium to high quality hay until grazing is available. Having a plan for the wintering period can greatly reduce cow costs, up to $40/head in some cases. Small and medium sized producers should consider purchasing rather than making hay, and should maximize the use of stockpiled forage to minimize the amount of hay needed. They should also consider using deep stacked broiler litter as an alternative to hay, as this will help reduce feed cost and build pasture fertility.
Putting together a practical grazing system takes a lot of planning and goal setting. Often these systems fail because the producer failed to do a good job of deciding what they were doing and why. The management of a forage system takes time and effort, and it is important that the producer set up a system that is best suited for their management style.
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The Captain, who held a long press conference today, sounded the charge. And spoke about everything: from the team’s current period to the team of the future, from his performances to the European Championships, plus the record he looks set to break soon, for the highest number of games played in the history of the Club.
The rallying cry: balance. «At this point of the season we mustn’t be too content or too relaxed. A balance is needed. Only that can give us the strength we need».
Eleven finals. «Knowing Fiorentina’s and AC Milan’s worth, a four or five point advantage doesn’t allow us to say we are safe in our position. The points we earned at Genoa were crucial. This is the time to step on the accelerator and for us these last 11 games must be like 11 cup finals».
Sufficient stamina. «Only by going on the pitch will we know if we still have enough stamina to reach the last hurdle. We only have one game to play midweek before the end of the season, so we’ll have all the time to recover after every match and not only under a physical point of view».
Assessment postponed. «It’s not time to make any final assessment yet, not even about future objectives. We must only concentrate on getting the most we can from each match; basically we must always try and win. I would never sign for any objective beforehand; I want to play my cards until the very end. For 16 years I’ve aimed for the top and I’ve achieved it».
Which Europe? «Playing to get into the Champions League or the UEFA Cup are two different things: not only in financial terms, but due to the two competitions’ different appeal. Nowadays, the UEFA Cup is like a mini-Champions League, but it’s worth fighting to get into the more glamorous tournament».
League still open. «We lost seven out of nine possible points in seven days; it wasn’t all our own fault and that’s a real shame. But Inter Milan lost five points in just a few matches too. Aiming for the best result also means hoping we can get to second place. That’s why I’m rooting for Roma do very well in the Champions League and a little less well in the League».
Starting again against Napoli. «Memories about the last game against them are fading, but we’ll have to try and use it as extra motivation. There are three important points up for grabs and playing at home must be a decisive factor. I’m sorry about Zalayeta’s injury. I score often against Napoli? I hope to continue this time also».
John Elkann’s visit. «Yesterday we talked about the team’s moment. He confirmed how close the Club is to us now, I told him the atmosphere is good and that we have important games ahead of us, from which we want to get the most».
Juventus’ future. «Over the years we’ve kept our strengths, such as our determination and our will to win. I’d begin from these foundations for the future too. We’re aware something’s amiss, but understanding what and doing something about it is a little harder. Some excellent new signings and more faith in ourselves could help».
Personal assessment. «It’s too early for a personal assessment too. My objectives are definitely clear and only some of them depend entirely on me. I want to keep giving my best, with determination and with a strong desire to play. And then I still hope I can take part in the European Championships».
Chasing Euro 2008. «It mustn’t become an obsession. I spoke with Donadoni before he named the last squad. He wants answers from the pitch and I know I can give them to him. Only by playing well will I reach both mine and Juventus’ objectives. Everything depends on these last few matches. I’m aware I’ve had a wonderful season until now and I want to finish it off even better. And then Donadoni will have all the freedom to choose the set-up he feels is more appropriate. The only thing I need to do is to continue playing like I am».
Change of attitude. «Thanks to what I achieved last year and what I’m achieving this year, I think I made a lot of people change their attitude towards me. I responded well to criticism; not only from the press, but from others in the business too. That’s why I can only be pleased. Only the facts can determine certain situations and if you get positive results there’s more enthusiasm».
Many decisive aspects. «A lot of different aspects are conditioning the end result. The way I’ve trained is only one of them. The others are analyzing the games I played, eating well and also being happy with my family».
An icon regardless of stats. «In just a few games I’ll reach Scirea’s number of games played? Statistics are important and they must be emphasized. It’ll be a proud moment when I equal such a champion, who made history regardless of his stats. Just like others, such as Boniperti and Furino. Then there are players who hold no records but are in people’s hearts, like Platini for example. Trophies won, how you play, how you behave – these are the things that count. And under this point of view, I hope I can imitate Scirea, Boniperti and the others».
“saya sangat gembira bisa kembali bermain, setelah saya tidak dapat bermain pada laga-laga sebelumnya. Saya akan membayar kesalahan saya. Saya diusir setelah mendapatkan dua kali kartu kuning pada menit-menit akhir pertandingan. Kembali bermain melawan Napoli ? kedua tim kehilangan beberapa pemain, tapi saya berharap kami dapat mengalahkan mereka dan menunjukkan permainan yang bagus kepada para penggemar” ungkap Nedved kepada situs resmi juventus.
Sebelum mengakhiri musim ini juve menyisakan 11 pertandingan. Sisa-sisa laga tersebut sangatlah penting bagi nedved dan para punggawa juve lainnya untuk menunjukkan kelas dan determinasi mereka. “Saya akan bermain untuk 2 tahun yang akan datang dan kembali bermain di Liga Champion… Saya tidak suka membicarakan hal tersebut; Saya akan bermain dan memberikan yang terbaik serta menciptakan gol dan umpan bagi rekan satu tim.Ini sangat penting bagi Juventus. Kami akan terus berkonsentrasi untuk dapat memenangkan setiap laga yang akan kami mainkan”.
Pada Minggu (16/3/2008) nanti Juve akan menjamu tamunya Napoli yang sekarang berada pada peringkat ke-12 dengan perolehan nilai 33 poin sedangkan juve berada pada peringkat ke-3 klasemen sementara.
Saat ini kondisi moral pemain juve sedang bagus-bagusnya setelah minggu lalu berhasil mempermalukan tuan rumah Genoa dengan skor 2-0. Kondisi ini diharapkan dapat menambah motivasi mereka untuk terus dapat mengejar tiket ke Liga Champions pada musim yang akan datang, ditambah lagi dengan kesetiaan kiper utama mereka yang juga kiper timnas Italia yaitu Buffon untuk terus dapat menjaga gawang bianconneri hingga usianya 35 tahun.
Dengan adanya tambahan motivasi tersebut kita (para juventini) harapkan para pemain juventus dapat mengulangi keberhasilan mereka minggu lalu untuk menuai angka penuh dikandang mereka sendiri, walaupun kita tahu bahwa tim yang akan dihadapi juve bukan sembarangan tim yang mudah untuk ditaklukkan semua lawan.
Untuk itu mari kita para juventini untuk selalu memberikan dukungan agar juventus dapat kembali merebut gelar scudeto pada musim sebelumnya.
Seperti dilansir AP, Kamis (13/3/2008) “Saya akan bermain dengan Juventus hingga usia saya 35 tahun. Saya akan banyak mendapatkan kepuasan. Saya ingin mengucapkan terima kasih kepada pelatih tim dan Juventini atas kesetiaannya kepada saya maupun tim,” Kata Buffon.
Pernyataan Buffon ini langsung direspon hangat oleh administrator juve Jean-Caud Blanc “Ini menegaskan masa depan Juventus akan semakin cerah. Cara ini juga merupakan cara kami menghargai kesetiaan kepada pemain yang menjadi salah satu ujung tombak masa kini dan masa depan,” ungkap Blanc.